Interdecadal variability of the austral summer precipitation over the Central Andes


23 de setiembre de 2022


The impacts of the interdecadal variability of the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans on precipitation over the Central Andes during the austral summer (December January-February, DJF) are investigated for the 1921–2010 period based on monthly gridded precipitation data and low-pass filtered time series of the Niño 4 index (IN4), the Niño 1 + 2 index with Niño 3.4 index removed (IN1+2*), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) indices, and the three first rotated principal components of the interdecadal component of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the Atlantic Ocean. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of precipitation in the Central Andes (10°S–30°S) yields two leading modes, RPC1 and RPC2, which represent 40.4% and 18.6% of the total variance, respectively. REOF1 features a precipitation dipole between the northern Bolivian and the Chilean Altiplano. REOF2 also features a precipitation dipole, with highest negative loading over the southern Peruvian Andes. The REOF1 positive phase is associated with moisture transport from the lowlands toward the Bolivian Altiplano, induced by upper-level easterly wind anomalies over the Central Andes. At the same time conditions tend to be dry over the southern Peruvian Andes. The positive phase of REOF2 is related to weakened moisture transport, induced by upper-level westerly wind anomalies over Peru. The IPO warm phase induces significant dry anomalies over the Bolivian Altiplano, albeit weaker than during the IN4 warm phase, via upper-level westerly wind anomalies over the Central Andes. No significant relationship was found between Central Andean precipitation and the AMO on interdecadal timescales.


Sulca Jota, Juan Carlos; Vuille, Mathias; Dong, Bo



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